mysql -u root -p 解释

 

mysqldump备份:

使用此命令首先确保你的mysql运行环境已经搭建好

复制代码 代码如下:

这是客户端连接mysql服务器的指令,比较全的写法是下面两种

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a -w “sql条件” –lock-all-tables
> 路径

第一个是全拼,第二个是第一个的缩写

mysqldump还原:

mysql –host=localhost –user=myname –password=password
mydb

复制代码 代码如下:

mysql -h localhost
-u myname -ppassword
mydb

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

一般在使用中,我们会省略-h参数,mysql会自动默认为本地连接

mysqldump按条件导出:

还有一点就是各个参数之间是否有空格的问题,-u后面可以有也可以省略空格,对于-p后面的参数我要单独说一下

复制代码 代码如下:

这是我从mysql官方文档拷过来的内容

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a –where “条件语句” –no-建表>
路径
mysqldump -uroot -p1234 dbname a –where “tag=’88′” –no-create-info>
c:a.sql

for password options, the password value is optional:

mysqldump按条件导入:

  If you use
-p or --password option
and specify the password value, there must be no
space
 between -p or --password= and
the password following it.

复制代码 代码如下:

  If you use
-p or --password option
but do not specify the password value, the client program prompts you to
enter the password. The password is not displayed as you enter it. This
is more secure than giving the password on the command line. Other users
on your system may be able to see a password specified on the command
line by executing a command such as ps
auxw

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

具体就是:对于password选项,此选项是可选的

案例:

如果你明确指定了-p或者–password的值,那么-p或者–password和密码值之间是不能有空格的。

复制代码 代码如下:

如果你使用了-p或者–password选项但是没有给出password值,客户端程序提示您输入密码。

mysql -uroot -p1234 db1 < c:a.txt

For mysql, the first
nonoption argument is taken as the name of the default database. If
there is no such option, mysql does not select a default
database.

mysqldump导出表:

对于MySQL,第一个非选项参数被当作默认数据库的名称。如果没有这样的选项,MySQL就不会选择默认数据库。

复制代码 代码如下:

也就是说在命令行中,你的mysql密码和-p或者–password参数之间有空格,mysql会认为你输入的是登录mysql后自动选择的数据库,而不是你所期望的密码

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 表

当然命令行连接数据库还有其它参数,这里主要介绍几个经常使用的,其它请参考

案例:mysqldump -uroot -p sqlhk9 a –no-data

参数详解:

使用mysqldump
mysqldump -u root -p your-new-password databasename [tablename] >
db.sql

比较大的表需要用优化的dump以节省内存:
mysqldump –opt database > backup-file.sql

mysqldump工具有大量的选项,部分选项如下表:

  选项/Option 作用/Action Performed

  –add-drop-table

  这个选项将会在每一个表的前面加上DROP TABLE IF
EXISTS语句,这样可以保证导回MySQL数据库的时候不会出错,因为每次导回的时候,都会首先检查表是否存在,存在就删除

  –add-locks

  这个选项会在INSERT语句中捆上一个LOCK TABLE和UNLOCK
TABLE语句。这就防止在这些记录被再次导入数据库时其他用户对表进行的操作
  
  -c or – complete_insert

  这个选项使得mysqldump命令给每一个产生INSERT语句加上列(field)的名字。当把数据导出导另外一个数据库时这个选项很有用。

  –delayed-insert 在INSERT命令中加入DELAY选项

  -F or -flush-logs
使用这个选项,在执行导出之前将会刷新MySQL服务器的log.

  -f or -force 使用这个选项,即使有错误发生,仍然继续导出

  –full 这个选项把附加信息也加到CREATE TABLE的语句中

  -l or -lock-tables 使用这个选项,导出表的时候服务器将会给表加锁。

  -t or -no-create- info

  这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建CREATE
TABLE语句,这个选项在您只需要数据而不需要DDL(数据库定义语句)时很方便。
  
  -d or -no-data 这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建INSERT语句。

在您只需要DDL语句时,可以使用这个选项。

  –opt
此选项将打开所有会提高文件导出速度和创造一个可以更快导入的文件的选项。

  -q or -quick
这个选项使得MySQL不会把整个导出的内容读入内存再执行导出,而是在读到的时候就写入导文件中。

  -T path or -tab = path
这个选项将会创建两个文件,一个文件包含DDL语句或者表创建语句,另一个文件包含数据。DDL文件被命名为table_name.sql,数据文件被命名为table_name.txt.路径名是存放这两个文件的目录。目录必须已经存在,并且命令的使用者有对文件的特权。
  
  -w “WHERE Clause” or -where = “Where clause “

参考国外网站

NAME
       mysqldump – a database backup program

SYNOPSIS
       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name …]]

国际太阳娱乐网站2138,DESCRIPTION
       The mysqldump client can be used to dump a database or a
collection of
       databases for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL
server
       (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump contains SQL
statements to
       create the table and/or populate the table.

       If you are doing a backup on the server, and your tables all are
MyISAM
       tables, you could consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead since
faster
       backups and faster restores can be accomplished with the latter.
See
       mysqlhotcopy(1).

       There are three general ways to invoke mysqldump:

       shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tables]
       shell> mysqldump [options] –databases DB1 [DB2 DB3…]
       shell> mysqldump [options] –all-databases

       If you do not name any tables or use the –databases or
–all-databases
       option, entire databases are dumped.

       To get a list of the options your version of mysqldump
supports,
       execute mysqldump –help.

       If you run mysqldump without the –quick or –opt option,
mysqldump
       loads the whole result set into memory before dumping the result.
This
       probably is a problem if you are dumping a big database. As of
MySQL
       4.1, –opt is enabled by default, but can be disabled with
–skip-opt.

       If you are using a recent copy of the mysqldump program to
generate a
       dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not
use
       the –opt or -e options.

       Before MySQL 4.1.2, out-of-range numeric values such as -inf and
inf,
       as well as NaN (not-a-number) values are dumped by mysqldump as
NULL.
       You can see this using the following sample table:

       mysql> CREATE TABLE t (f DOUBLE);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(1e+111111111111111111111);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(-1e111111111111111111111);
       mysql> SELECT f FROM t;
       +——+
       | f    |
       +——+
       |  inf |
       | -inf |
       +——+

       For this table, mysqldump produces the following data output:

       —
       — Dumping data for table ‘t‘
       —
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);

       The significance of this behavior is that if you dump and restore
the
       table, the new table has contents that differ from the original
       contents. This problem is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.2; you cannot
insert
       inf in the table, so this mysqldump behavior is only relevant
when you
       deal with old servers.

       mysqldump supports the following options:

       ·  –help, -?

          Display a help message and exit.

       ·  –add-drop-database

          Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE
statement.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.13.

       ·  –add-drop-table

          Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

       ·  –add-locks

          Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES
          statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file
is
          reloaded. See Section 2.13, “Speed of INSERT Statements”.

       ·  –all-databases, -A

          Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using
the
          –databases option and naming all the databases on the command
line.

       ·  –allow-keywords

          Allow creation of column names that are keywords. This works
by
          prefixing each column name with the table name.

       ·  –comments[={0|1}]

          If set to 0, suppresses additional information in the dump
file such
          as program version, server version, and host.  –skip-comments
has
          the same effect as –comments=0. The default value is 1,
which
          includes the extra information. Added in MySQL 4.0.17.

       ·  –compact

          Produce less verbose output. This option suppresses comments
and
          enables the –skip-add-drop-table, –no-set-names,
          –skip-disable-keys, and –skip-add-locks options. Added in
MySQL
          4.1.2.

       ·  –compatible=name

          Produce output that is more compatible with other database
systems
          or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
          mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb,
          no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options.
To use
          several values, separate them by commas. These values have the
same
          meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server
SQL
          mode. See the section called “THE SERVER SQL MODE”.

          This option does not guarantee compatibility with other
servers. It
          only enables those SQL mode values that are currently
available for
          making dump output more compatible. For example,
–compatible=oracle
          does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle
comment
          syntax.

          This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With
older
          servers, it does nothing.

       ·  –complete-insert, -c

          Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

       ·  –compress, -C

          Compress all information sent between the client and the
server if
          both support compression.

       ·  –create-options

          Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE
          statements. Before MySQL 4.1.2, use –all instead.

       ·  –databases, -B

          Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first
name
          argument on the command line as a database name and following
names
          as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments
as
          database names.  CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS db_name and
USE
          db_name statements are included in the output before each
new
          database.

       ·  –debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

          Write a debugging log. The debug_options string is often
          ´d:t:o,file_name’.

       ·  –default-character-set=charset

          Use charset as the default character set. See Section 7.1,
“The
          Character Set Used for Data and Sorting”. If not specified,
          mysqldump from MySQL 4.1.2 or later uses utf8, and earlier
versions
          use latin1.

       ·  –delayed-insert

          Insert rows using INSERT DELAYED statements.

       ·  –delete-master-logs

          On a master replication server, delete the binary logs after
          performing the dump operation. This option automatically
enables
          –first-slave before MySQL 4.1.8 and enables –master-data
          thereafter. It was added in MySQL 3.23.57 (for MySQL 3.23) and
MySQL
          4.0.13 (for MySQL 4.0).

       ·  –disable-keys, -K

          For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000
ALTER
          TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE
tbl_name
          ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file
into a
          MySQL 4.0 or newer server faster because the indexes are
created
          after all rows are inserted. This option is effective for
MyISAM
          tables only.

       ·  –extended-insert, -e

          Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES
lists.
          This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when
the
          file is reloaded.

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